关键词:崩溃

2016年1月5日,我开始给SMS的六年级学生上汉语课(在美国哥伦比亚市六年级,也就是我们国内说的初一年)。这些学生除了要上汉语外,还要学习西班牙语、法语,因此我们有搭档的教师,共同负责班级的教学活动。三周一种语言,一轮是九周,上完一轮后,还有第二轮的新学生学习三种语言。整个哥伦比亚市的六年级学生都要学习三门语言,到了七年级就可以正式只修一门语言。可以说六年级的语言课其实就是体验课。接手的第一个班级由我的搭档教师开始上西班牙语课,但是情况很糟糕。她上的很吃力,经常大吼。

学生的问题有以下几点:

1. 多数学生上课喜欢说话,即使教师大吼,学生还是照常说话,甚至说话声音超过教师上课的声音;

2. 班级上问题学生比较多,有两个是学校出名的trouble maker,他们两个经常带动班上的同学说话,同时也影响了其他愿意认真上课的学生;

3. 多数学生不遵守课堂规矩,随意在课上走动,不经过同意就出去上洗手间;

4. 课堂上布置的作业,当场需要完成的,学生不以为然;

5. 由于课堂吵闹,教学上的活动设计受到重大干扰;

解决办法:

一开始我的搭档教师已经放弃了这个班级的教学,主要还是因为多数学生不听话,她说这是她接手班级有史以来最乱的一个班。我接到这样的班级也是措手不及,因为我以前基本教较大的孩子,所以针对这样的班级我花了很长的时间和搭档教师沟通,和有经验的汉语教师沟通,尝试了很多的方法,在这里分享几个比较有用的方法。

首先,针对问题学生,如果他实在不想上课,又捣乱课堂的话,可以把他直接送到校长办公室,由校长亲自督导。但是,这个方法并不能经常使用,因为你经常送的话,学校会怀疑你的教学和管理能力。这时候,班级上的save seat就有作用。我们班级有一个专门的座位是为扰乱课堂的学生而设,学生做在那里后,前后左右都没有学生,所以没人和他说话。如果接下去有人扰乱课堂,那么下一个人就要直接到走廊里站着。这样的“惩罚”机制还是比较有效果的。

其次,教师大声吼其实没有什么效果,有些学生根本听不进去,这时候可以采取措施,比如说谁继续扰乱课堂,谁下了课就不准走,得待在班上五分钟。如果再吵就增加时间。由于语言课结束后是六年级学生用餐时间,所以一般来说学生都不希望耽误自己的吃饭时间,因此也会乖一些。但是,即便不是午餐时间,学生也不愿意被留下来,所以这个措施还是很有效果的。

再次,为保证一些愿意认真上课的学生,我和搭档教师重新安排了座位,将一些认真听话的学生尽可能安排在靠前的位置。而一些问题比较大的学生就安插在安静的学生中,这样即便他们说话,安静的学生也不会回应,所以效果好了很多。

另次,课堂上布置的作业一定要向告诉学生作业的重要性,关乎最后成绩。当然也有一些学生真的不想做,那么挂科也是必然的。

对于课堂管理,每节课都要重复课堂规矩,比如要征得同意才能走出教室,有问题想发言都必须举手,在每节课上都要不断的重复,重复之后学生才会记得,尤其针对较难管理的课堂。

除了一定的惩罚机制,还要有适当的奖励,比如说中国传统饰品,扇子、毽子、熊猫玩偶、手链等等,一些小东西可以刺激学生认真学习。

反思

这段教学经历给我留下了深刻印象。在我研究生入学后,我一直在思考一个问题,那么就是当你发现课堂教学或者纪律有问题的时候,是否你会尝试用不同角度看问题呢?当然,这个问题是Amy(博士后)问我的。下面请阅读以下一段话,这是我针对上述的问题进行自我的思考后作出的回答(英文版,翻译有点花时间,大家就当做阅读吧)。

Constrainedly, I completed the first session, however many times when I recall this experience, I still do not know what the solution to this problem should have been. That is why when I read this question that I had a strong emotional reaction. Think about different angles? It makes me consider that if I went back to that situation again, what were different angles? At first, I could have examined each students’ personnel situation and motivation which I have mentioned in the beginning, while the second angle would be to evaluate the teachers. I did not think about this angle during the time I was teaching. Actually, before the Chinese session, the 6th grade students already had taken French and Spanish which were taught by my co-teacher who was a novice world-language teacher. She sat up several strict and rigorous rules in the classroom which I thought was okay since I had seen this in China. (I do not want to indicate that my co-teacher’s teaching methods were not good, I want to rethink the situation to contemplate other solutions to our classroom management) My co-teacher did not consider the students as individuals with different responses to learning a new language, for instance, some students are auditory learners and others might be sight learners. She was totally following the curricula designed by the world language department.  Seemingly, she did not pay attention to the reaction from students, instead, she just continued to teach, following the prescribed lesson plan.  Before I started to teach, she told me she had given up on this class and wished to quickly finish the session. I think if my co-teacher had showed a positive attitude towards to students, what might the situation be? Would my first teaching experience have been a positive one? I regretted that I did not talk to each student after class or outside the classroom. In fact, I did not have the opportunity to interact with any of them individually. If I had known how each was responding or what previous educational experience each student came into the class with, what might the situation be? Also and thirdly, it was the school or the district which I did not consider initially. I think the school did not place much value on the subject of world language and therefore did not evaluate the competency and preparation of world language teachers.
 

我记得在北京语言大学上汉语教师培训课的时候,多数的老师一再强调要和学生保持距离。然而,恰恰是这种距离使我和学生在情感上没有任何交流,最后也导致我不能理解他们,他们也不能理解我。当时的我,从未和他们有课后的交流,即使学生别留下来也只有我的搭档教师留下来和学生谈话,而我早已经屁颠屁颠的去赶公车回办公室了。现在想想,真的很可惜。如果我留下来,倾听学生的想法和意见,是否会有更大的突破呢?现在也不得而知了。只是这一次的经历给我大大的教训。Amy在我的这段话下面给了一个批注,内容是:“ It sounds like part of what you are getting at is that you might have worked at creating more individual relationships with your students,=, That can make a big difference.       

You are also hitting on a powerful idea around value. You are spot on that if kids sense something is not valued, they will be quick to follow suit and manifest the inner thinking/feeling of that teacher in their behavior. Our students are excellent mirrors for us. Its part of why (I think) teaching can be so challenging AND humbling. Think about all you learned from this first difficult experience and how it will make you a better and stronger teacher next time you encounter a situation like that."

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